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In our articles you can learn more about Disease And Treatment including sign and symptom, laboratory testing, diagnosis, prognosis, diet. We provide you many of serious medical cases from acute to chronic disease, health guides, medical reports, advice & support for the patient

Hypertension or High Blood Pressure Disease

Hypertension (HTN) or High Blood Pressure (HBP) is a cardiac chronic medical term in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated. We can say that the Hypertension occurs when blood is forced pushing against the walls of arteries at an increased pressure. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the body's tissues.

Many people have hypertension and don't know it. Because of that the hypertension is known as the "silent killer" since it has no initial symptoms but can lead to long-term disease and complications. Hypertension or high blood pressure is the primary and most important manifesting symptom of hypertensive vascular disease.

- Classification of Hypertension disease ;
  • Primary (essential) hypertension, Around 90–95% of cases are categorized as "primary hypertension," which means high blood pressure with no obvious medical cause.
  • Secondary hypertension; and around 5–10% of cases (secondary hypertension) are caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system.

Blood pressure is measured using two numbers. Blood pressure when the heart beats is called systolic pressure, Blood pressure when the heart is at rest is called diastolic pressure. An example of this could be 'the blood pressure is 120 over 80', which is written as "120/80" mmHg (millimeters of mercury).

The American Heart Association has long considered blood pressure less than 140/90 mmHg is normal for adults. But some other medical team told that the Healthy blood pressure readings are below 120/80 mmHg. In these case, mostly doctors will give answer to the patient like this; "As long as with number of 140/90 do not give an effect to the patient, It's called normal blood pressure not hypertension case.

- What's classed of blood pressure ?
  • Normal blood pressure less than 120/80
  • Pre-hypertension 120-139/ 80-89
  • High blood pressure (hypertension stage 1) 140-159/90-99
  • High blood pressure (hypertension stage 2) higher than 160/100

- Sign and Symptom of Hypertension disease ;

One of the big problems with hypertension is that it hardly ever causes symptoms. Mild to moderate essential hypertension is usually asymptomatic (a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms). Severe hypertension can cause symptoms such as headache, drowsiness, confusion, vision disorders, sleepiness, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms are collectively called hypertensive encephalopathy.

Hypertensive encephalopathy mostly cause by severe small blood vessel congestion and brain swelling, which is reversible if blood pressure is lowered. People often do not seek medical care until they have symptoms arising from the organ damage caused by chronic (ongoing, long-term) hypertension.

- Causes of Hypertension Disease ;

Primary (essential) hypertension. This classification no direct cause has been identified but there are risk factors that can contribute to developing high blood pressure; Sedentary lifestyle, stress, smoking, visceral obesity, potassium deficiency (hypokalemia), obesity, salt (sodium) sensitivity, alcohol intake, and vitamin D deficiency that increase the risk of developing hypertension, having a family history of hypertension (heredity), Birth control pills (oral contraceptive use), Lack of exercise (physical inactivity) and also Medications (amphetamines, diet pills, and some medications used for cold and allergy symptoms like pseudoephedrine).

Secondary hypertension. This type is important to recognize since it's treated differently to essential hypertension, by treating the underlying cause of the elevated blood pressure. Some of the main causes for secondary hypertension are chronic kidney diseases, diseases in the arteries supplying the kidneys, chronic alcohol abuse, hormonal disturbances, endocrine tumours. Other common causes of secondary hypertension is pre-eclampsia during pregnancy.

- Prevention of Hypertension Disease ;

If you are diagnosed as hypertension, the first step in blood pressure control is regular blood pressure checks. Some guide to prevent you fro hypertension are :
  • Weight reduction and regular aerobic exercise
  • Reduce dietary sugar
  • Reduce sodium (salt) in the body
  • Diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low-fat or fat-free dairy products
  • Discontinuing tobacco use and alcohol consumption
  • Reducing stress, for example with relaxation therapy
  • Increasing omega 3 fatty acids can help lower hypertension.

- Treatment of Hypertension Disease ;

If you are diagnosed as having hypertension, follow your doctor's instructions faithfully. The first line of treatment for hypertension, which are the same as the recommended preventative lifestyle changes such as dietary changes, physical exercise and weight loss. The next step is taking medicine anti hypertensive drugs, The first line antihypertensive supported by the best evidence is a low dose thiazide-based diuretic.
  • Diuretics help the body get rid of excess salt and fluids via the kidneys. In certain cases, they relax blood vessels, reducing the strain on your circulation.
  • ACE inhibitors stop the production of a hormone called angiotensin II, this medicine will makes the blood vessels narrow. If your hypertension is not easily controlled on simple medication, your doctor will probably use a medicine of this type.
  • Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists work in a similar way to ACE inhibitors. This is hypertension drug that stopping the production of angiotensin II and block its action. This allows the blood vessels to expand, improving blood flow and reducing blood pressure.
  • Alpha-blockers cause the blood vessels to relax and widen. Combining them with beta-blockers has a greater effect on the resistance in the circulation.
  • Beta-blockers block the effect of the hormone adrenaline and the sympathetic nervous system on the body. This relaxes the heart so that it beats more slowly, lowering the blood pressure.
  • Calcium-channel blockers reduce muscle tension in the arteries, expanding them and creating more room for the blood flow. In addition, they slightly relax the heart muscle so it beats more slowly, reducing blood pressure.
  • Some examples of common combined prescription drug treatments is combination of an ACE inhibitor and a calcium channel blocker (perindopril and amlodipine).

- Complication of Hypertension Disease ;

Without treatment, life expectancy may well be reduced due to the risk of developing complications such as heart failure or stroke. Other complication of hypertension disease may refer to Myocardial infarction, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Hypertensive retinopathy, Hypertensive nephropathy and Hypertensive encephalopathy.

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