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In our articles you can learn more about Disease And Treatment including sign and symptom, laboratory testing, diagnosis, prognosis, diet. We provide you many of serious medical cases from acute to chronic disease, health guides, medical reports, advice & support for the patient

Disease and Treatment of Alzheimer

What is Alzheimer Disease (AD)?

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over time. Alzheimer's is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. The biggest risk factor for having Alzheimer’s disease is increasing age, with three in ten people over 85 having dementia. Symptoms can be treated with medication, but there is no cure.

The cause of Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood. It's recorded about 70% of the risk is believed to be genetic with many genes usually involved. Other risk factors include :

  • a family history of the condition
  • previous severe head injuries
  • lifestyle factors and conditions associated with cardiovascular disease.

  • The Alzheimer's disease process is associated with plaques and tangles in the brain. These plaques impair synapses so signals cannot pass between brain cells. Tangles kill brain cells by preventing the normal transport of food and energy around the brain cell. Both of this situation causing a declining ability to cope with everyday life as brain cells die. As brain cells die the brain shrinks, which can be detected using imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease

    The most common early symptom of Alzheimer's is difficulty remembering newly learned information. For example, this could be forgetting about recent conversations or events, and forgetting the names of places and objects. Other symptoms may include:
    • Emotional unpredictability
    • Vagueness in everyday conversation
    • Forgetting well-known people or places
    • Taking longer to do routine tasks
    • Apparent loss of enthusiasm for previously enjoyed activities
    • Inability to process questions and instructions
    • Deterioration of social skills
    • hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that aren't there) and delusions (believing things that are untrue

    Diagnosis and Test for Alzheimer's disease

    The diagnosis is made only after careful clinical consultation, usually diagnosed based on the person's medical history, history from relatives, and behavioural observations. However, a timely diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can give you the best chance to prepare and plan for the future, as well as receive any treatment or support that may help.

    Some test procedure may help the doctor to put the diagnose of Alzheimer's disease such as ;
    - Neuropsychological tests (mini–mental state examination (MMSE) are widely used to evaluate the cognitive impairments)
    - Blood and urine tests (identify other causes for dementia)
    - Lumbar puncture for cerebral spinal fluid tests
    - Medical imaging (MRI, PET)

    Having trouble with memory does not mean someone have Alzheimer's. Many health issues can cause problems with memory and thinking. These tests will help to eliminate other conditions with similar symptoms such as nutritional deficiencies or depression.

    Treatment of Alzheimer's Diasease

    As we have explain in the begining, there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease. But medication is available that can help relieve some of the symptoms and slow down the progression of the condition in some people. Five medications are currently used to treat the cognitive problems of AD: four are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (tacrine, rivastigmine, galantamine and donepezil) and the other (memantine) is an NMDA receptor antagonist. The benefit from their use is small. No medication has been clearly shown to delay or halt the progression of the disease.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 11:59 AM, ,

    Zika Virus Disease

    Zika virus is transmitted by the same type of mosquito that carries dengue fever, yellow fever, and chikungunya virus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys through a network that monitored yellow fever. It was later identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania, A mosquito bites an infected person and then passes those viruses to other people it bites. For most people it is a very mild infection and isn't harmful.

    Most cases of Zika have no symptoms, but when present they are usually mild and can resemble dengue fever. Zika virus disease has ben recorded in Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific. As of 25 August 2016, 70 countries and territories have reported evidence of mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission since 2007. In the region of Asia, Ministry of Health Singapore confirmed that the Zika virus found in 41 patient. From these cases, 36 were identified through active testing of potentially infected persons.

  • What is symptom of Zika virus disease?

  • The incubation period of Zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days. Symptoms may include fever, red eyes, joint pain, headache, skin rashes, malaise, and a maculopapular rash. These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days.
  • What is Complications of Zika virus disease

  • Zika infection during pregnancy can cause a birth defect of the brain called microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. In rare cases, Zika has been linked to Guillain-Barre syndrome (an uncommon sickness of the nervous system in which a person’s own immune system damages the nerve cells, causing muscle weakness, and sometimes, paralysis).
  • How to Prevention from Zika Virus?

  • As information above, The Zika virus is spread by mosquitoes. So, Protection against mosquito bites is a key measure to prevent Zika virus infection. Mosquitoes that spread Zika virus bite mostly during the day, but they can also bite at night. If your area has been report some one get this case, try to cover exposed skin by wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants. If you are also using sunscreen, apply sunscreen first, let it dry, then apply insect repellent. Use a bed net if the area where you are sleeping is exposed to the outdoors.

    Zika virus can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. We know that Zika can remain in semen longer than in other body fluids, including vaginal fluids, urine, and blood. For regions with no active transmission of Zika virus, WHO recommends practicing safer sex or abstinence for a period of 6 months to whom return from areas of active transmission to prevent Zika virus infection through sexual intercourse.
  • What is treatment of Zika virus disease?

  • There is currently no specific treatment for Zika virus infection. People sick with Zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat the symptom like pain and fever with common medicines. There is currently no vaccine available.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 10:50 AM, ,

    Diasease and Treatment of Hepatitis

    Hepatitis is medical condition defined by swelling and inflammation of the liver. The hepatitis condition can be self-limiting (healing on its own), or can lead to scarring which called as cirrhosis and also possible lead to cancer. The type of hepatitis is named for the virus that causes it; for example, hepatitis A, hepatitis B or hepatitis C.

    Causes of Hepatitis Disease

    Hepatitis disease can be caused by ;

    Some other medicine also can damage the liver such as methyldopa for high blood pressure, isoniazid for tuberculosis, valproate and phenytoin for seizure's treatment, and including antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin). Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer.

    Symptom of Hepatitis Disease

    Hepatitis may occur with limited or no symptoms, but often leads to jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), anorexia (poor appetite), vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, Diarrhea, malaise. and extreme fatigue. Hepatitis may start and get better quickly (acute hepatitis), or cause long-term disease (chronic hepatitis).

    Hepatitis disease type A is usually short-term and does not lead to chronic liver problems. But patient with hepatitis B or C event they don't have symptom, the hepatitis can develop liver failure. Symptomatic individuals may present after convalescent stage of 7 to 10 days, with the total illness lasting 2 to 6 weeks.

    Signs and tests of hepatitis disease will begin from physical examination, how the liver it self (Enlarged and tender). In the abdomen area the doctor will see the ascites (Fluid in the abdomen), and of course will see the skin about jaundice. Diagnose of hepatitis disease may appear on the laboratory test such as :
    • Liver function tests
    • Autoimmune blood markers
    • Hepatitis virus serologies
    • Abdominal ultrasound
    • Paracentesis if fluid is in your abdomen
    • Liver biopsy to check for liver damage

    In the women who diagnose as autoimmune hepatitis, may appear symptom like Acne, abnormal menstruation, lung scarring, inflammation of the thyroid gland and kidneys. The white blood cells attack the liver, causing chronic inflammation and damage.

    Hepatitis disease type D is only present in people already infected with hepatitis B, these case more happened in Europe country. Hepatitis type E is generally a mild and acute infection, has a fecal-oral transmission route. Hepatitis E is very rare, It is caught by putting something in your mouth that has been contaminated with the faeces of someone with hepatitis E.

    Treatment of Hepatitis Disease

    Treatment of hepatitis disease depend on causes of liver disease. The doctor will recommend a high-calorie diet to the patient those losing weight, drink plenty of fluids, and bed rest. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C may need some antiviral drug therapy, combination between pegylated interferon and ribavirin. In Serious liver disease, Liver transplantation may be indicated for patients with severe cirrhosis or for patients with liver cancer that has not spread beyond the liver.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 10:55 PM, ,

    Disease and Treatment of Chickenpox

    Chickenpox disease is one of the classic childhood diseases. This is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). On the patient with chicken pox, an itchy rash of spots that look like blisters can appear all over the body and be accompanied by flu-like symptoms.

    Most people will get chickenpox at some point in their lives if they have not had the chickenpox vaccine. A person usually has only one episode of chickenpox, but varicella zoster virus can lie dormant within the body and cause a different type of skin eruption later in life called shingles (or herpes zoster).

    Chickenpox disease actually isn't serious health condition, but it can cause problems for pregnant women, newborns, teens and adults, and people who have immune system disorder that make it hard for the body to fight an infection. Somebody or Children usually catch chickenpox in winter and spring weather. Chickenpox is an airborne disease that spread easily through coughing or sneezing of ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the rash.

    When someone becomes infected by varicella zoster virus (VZV), the pox usually appear 10 to 21 days later. The contagious period continues for 4 to 5 days after the appearance of the rash, or until all lesions have crusted over.

    - Symptoms of Chickenpox Disease

    Generally if someone get chickenpox disease they have symptoms such as a fever, headache, tummy ache, or loss of appetite for a day or two before breaking out in the classic pox rash. Other symptom may develop of myalgia, nausea, sore throat, pain in both ears, complaints of pressure in head or swollen face, and malaise in adolescents and adults

    Chickenpox disease causes a red, itchy skin rash that usually appears first on the abdomen or back and face, and then spreads to almost everywhere else on the body, including the scalp, mouth, nose, ears, and genitals. Most pox will not leave scars unless they become infected with bacteria from scratching.

    The incubation period of chickenpox was known about 14 to 16 days after you have been around someone with the virus. Other illnesses can have symptoms like those of chickenpox, with these reason people are may think they have had chickenpox twice when instead they have had two different infections. Some people can develop serious bacterial infections involving the skin, lungs, bones, joints, and the brain (encephalitis).

    Test or examination to make sure if patient has chickenpox are blood tests, and tests of fluid within the vesicles of the rash (Tsanck smear). Prenatal diagnosis of fetal varicella infection can be performed using ultrasound, though a delay of 5 weeks following primary maternal infection is advised.

    - Treatment of Chickenpox Disease

    There is no specific treatment for chickenpox, it is enough to keep children comfortable while their own bodies fight the illness. Some treatments are however available for relieving the symptoms while the immune system clears the virus from the body, such as paracetamol to relieve fever and calamine lotion and cooling gels to ease itching.

    Patient with long-term diseases may need medication to treatment for chickenpox, They may need immunoglobulin (IG) or antiviral medicine. ussually doctor will give them that treatment soon after they are exposed to the virus to help them feel better sooner.

    Patient chickenpox disease with skin conditions (such as eczema or recent sunburn), lung conditions (such as asthma), or those who have recently taken steroids, the antiviral medicines may be very important. Antihistamines relieve itch and may be used in cases where the itch prevents sleep, because they are also sedative.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 2:50 PM, ,

    Diasease and Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, finally the person has high blood sugar (glucose) level, This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polydipsia (increased thirst), polyuria (frequent urination) and polyphagia (increased hunger).

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes by some serious health complications problem such as kidney disease (renal failure), heart disease, stroke, and blindness. Diabetes comes from Greek, and it means a siphon.In 1675 Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term, although it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. Mel in Latin means honey; the urine and blood of people with diabetes has excess glucose, and glucose is sweet like honey. Diabetes mellitus could literally mean "siphoning off sweet water".

    The main types include type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. The other forms of diabetes mellitus disease include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.

    Diabetes Mellitus disease type I : results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. Sometimes called juvenile diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Diabetes Type I can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. But in fact, Many patients are diagnosed when they are older than age 20.

    Diabetes Mellitus disease type II : This is the most common form of diabetes, results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. It most often occurs in adulthood, but teens and young adults are now being diagnosed with it because of high obesity rates. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes accounting for 90%-95% of people with diabetes. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it. Diabetes type II referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and adult-onset diabetes.

    Gestational Diabetes : Type of diabetes that develop during pregnancy and generally resolves after the baby is delivered. But, It may precede development of type 2 DM.

    - Signs and symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Disease

    Symptoms of diabetes can develop suddenly (over days or weeks) in previously healthy children or adolescents, or can develop gradually (over several years) in overweight adults over the age of 40. High blood levels of glucose can cause several problems, including Blurry vision, Excess thirst, Fatigue, Frequent urination, Hunger and Weight loss.

    Type 1 diabetes while in type 2 diabetes they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent.Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar have no symptoms. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop over a short period of time. Ketoacidosis, a condition due to starvation or uncontrolled diabetes, is common in Type I diabetes. Symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, rapid breathing, extreme lethargy, drowsiness and altered states of consciousness.

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus also may develop of hyperosmolar nonketotic state, which is more common in type 2 diabetes and is mainly the result of dehydration.Other sign and symptom is A number of skin rashes can occur in diabetes that are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.

    - Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus Disease

    The doctors will put diagnosis of diabetes mellitus after patient do some examination like urine test, blood test and see the result amount of glucose found. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following:
    • Fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL). Levels between 100 and 126 mg/dL are called impaired fasting glucose or pre-diabetes.
    • Plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test. The blood sugar levels increase slightly after eat and it will tightly regulated in the human body. This test is used more often for type 2 diabetes.
    • Symptoms of hyperglycemia and casual plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL).
    • Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) ≥ 6.5%. (Normal: Less than 5.7%)

    - Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Disease

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which cannot be cured except in very specific situations. Treatment of diabetes focuses on two goals: keeping blood glucose within normal range and preventing the development of long-term complications. Treatment involves medicines, diet, and exercise to control blood sugar and prevent symptoms and problems.

    The long-term goals of treatment are to Prolong life, Reduce symptoms, Prevent diabetes-related complications such as blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, and amputation of limbs.

    Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1, Patients with Type I diabetes disease need daily injections of insulin to help their bodies use glucose. Mostly doctors will give a combination use of regular or NPH insulin, and/or synthetic insulin analogs such as Humalog, Novolog or Apidra; the combination of Lantus/Levemir and Humalog, Novolog or Apidra. Treatment by using insulin must be continued indefinitely.

    Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Patients with Type II diabetes may need to use insulin injections if their diabetes cannot be controlled with diet, exercise, and oral medication. But the main think is the diabetes disease type II control by their lifestyle and physical activity.

    Patients with diabetes disease who require multiple injections over the course of a day may be able to use an insulin pump that administers small doses of insulin on demand. Attention is also paid to other health problems that may accelerate the deleterious effects of diabetes. These include smoking, elevated cholesterol levels, obesity, high blood pressure, and lack of regular exercise.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 10:52 AM, ,

    Disease and Treatment of Thalassemia

    Thalassemia or thalassaemia disease is a blood disorder passed down through families (inherited) or genetic problem that involve the decreased and defective production of hemoglobin, a molecule found inside all red blood cells (RBCs) that transports oxygen throughout the body. Hemoglobin also carries carbon dioxide (a waste gas) from the body to the lungs, where it's exhaled. The disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, which leads to mild or severe anemia.

    Thalassemias disease are originated in the Mediterranean region. In this case, parents pass the genes for the disorder on to their children. Thalassemias usually result in underproduction of normal globin proteins, often through mutations in regulatory genes. If you have mild thalassemia, you may don't need treatment. But, if you have a more severe form of thalassemia, you will need regular blood transfusions.

    Type of Thalassemia Disease :

    There are two main type of thalassemia ; alpha-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia. Alpha thalassemia occurs when a gene or genes related to the alpha globin protein are missing or changed (mutated). Alpha thalassemia trait occurs if one or two of the four genes are missing. If more than two genes are missing, moderate to severe anemia occurs. Alpha is prevalent in peoples of Western African, Middle East and South Asian descent, but nowadays found in populations living in Africa and in the Americas.

    Beta thalassemia occurs when similar gene defects affect production of the beta globin protein (one or both genes are altered). Beta thalassemia is particularly prevalent among Mediterranean origin, and to a lesser extent, Chinese, other Asians, and African Americans. In Europe, the highest concentrations of the disease are found in Greece, coastal regions in Turkey, in parts of Italy, in particular, Southern Italy and the lower Po valley.

    Beta thalassemia major is also called Cooley's anemia. Beta thalassemias are due to mutations in the HBB gene on chromosome 11. The severity of beta thalassemia depends on how much one or both genes are affected. There are many forms of thalassemia disease. Each type has many different subtypes. Both alpha and beta thalassemia include the following two forms ; Thalassemia major and Thalassemia minor.

    Thalassemia minor occurs if you receive the defective gene from only one parent. So, You must inherit the defective gene from both parents to develop thalassemia major. Thalassemias affect both males and females. Kids who have with different forms of thalassemia disease have different kinds of health problems.

    Sign and Symptom of Thalassemia disease :

    Many families have thalassemia carriers, but the trait often goes undiagnosed because it produces no or few symptoms. The signs and symptoms of thalassemia disease depend on the type and severity of thalassemia it self. The most severe form of alpha thalassemia major causes stillbirth (death of the unborn baby during birth or the late stages of pregnancy).

    In the children who were born with thalessemia major (Cooley's anemia) ussually normal at birth, but develop severe anemia during the first year of life. Some people who have only one affected hemoglobin gene don't experience any thalassemia symptoms.

    Generally, Signs and symptoms of thalassemia including weakness, fatigue, pale appearance, facial bone deformities, yellow discoloration of skin (jaundice), Shortness of breath, irritability, abdominal swelling, slow growth, and dark urine.

    Potential Complication of Thalassemia Disease :

    Untreated thalassemia major leads to liver problems and heart disease such as congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), and also makes a person more likely to develop infections. The other most common complication in the cases of severe thalassemia disease are ;
    • Enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), Thalassemia is often accompanied by the destruction of a large number of red blood cells, it will make the spleen work harder than normal, and finally causing it to enlarge (Splenomegaly). The spleen helps our body fight infection and filter unwanted material, such as old or damaged blood cells. If the spleen grows too big, it may need to be removed.
    • Bone deformities, Patient with thalassemia disease may their bone marrow become expand and it causing bones to widen. This condition make an abnormal bone structure, especially in their face and skull. Bone marrow expansion also makes bones thin and brittle, increasing the chance of broken bones.
    • Slowed growth rates, Patient with anemia problem can cause a child's growth to slow. Puberty also may be delayed in children with thalassemia.

    Exams, Test and Diagnosis of Thalassemia Disease :

    A physical examination may reveal a swollen (enlarged) spleen. The doctors will put diagnose of thalassemias disease using blood tests. She/He will order to get and send a blood sample to the laboratory for examination.
    • A complete blood count (CBC) reveals anemia.
    • Red blood cells will appear small and abnormally shaped when looked at under a microscope.
    • A test called hemoglobin electrophoresis shows the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin.
    • Perform DNA analysis to diagnose thalassemia or to determine if a person is carrying mutated hemoglobin genes
    A test called mutational analysis can help detect alpha thalassemia that cannot be seen with hemoglobin electrophoresis.

    Treatment of Thalassemia Disease :

    Treatment for thalassemia disease depends on which type thalassemia and how severe it is. Patients with thalassemia minor usually do not require any specific treatment. Treatments for moderate to severe thalassemia may include;
    • Treatment for thalassemia major often involves regular blood transfusions and folate supplements. (Note: if blood transfusions done, they should not take iron supplements). More-severe forms of thalassemia often require frequent blood transfusions, possibly every few weeks.
    • Stem cell or bone marrow transplant, Bone marrow transplant may help treat the disease in some patients, especially children.
    • Some medicine therapy which can reduce sign and symptom may appear.

    Preventing of Thalassemia Disease :

    In most cases, thalassemia can't be prevented. But if you now that you have thalassemia or if you carry a thalassemia gene, we suggest you to go to genetic counseling and prenatal screening that may be available in your area. Especially to those with a family history of this condition and who are planning to have children.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 12:25 AM, ,

    Disease and Treatment of Meningitis

    What is Meningitis?

    Meningitis disease is an inflammation of the lining or protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord, usually due to the spread of an infection. Meningitis is one of deadly diseases that can kill in hours. Most cases are caused by bacteria or viruses, but some can be due to certain medications or illnesses and it leads to the meninges becoming inflamed (swollen). When it's happened can damage the nerves and brain if late getting treatment.

    If patient suspect of meningitis, Knowing whether meningitis is caused by a virus or bacterium is important because the severity of illness and the treatment differ depending on the cause. Meningitis disease can resolve on its own in a couple of weeks or ... it can be a life-threatening emergency.

    Causes of Meningitis disease :

    Meningitis usually results from a viral infection, but some of cases are also cause by bacterial infection and fungal infection. Viruses and Bacteria that infect the skin, gastrointestinal, respiratory tract and urinary system can spread by the bloodstream to the meninges through cerebrospinal fluid, the fluid that circulates in and around the spinal cord.

    In some cases of bacterial meningitis, the bacteria spread to the meninges (protective membranes) from a severe local infection or a severe head trauma. For example, a serious ear infection (otitis media) and nasal sinus infection (sinusitis) can lead to meningitis disease if the patient don't get treatment well.

    • Viral meningitis (called aseptic meningitis), this kind of meningitis that the most common and less serious type of meningitis (clears up without specific treatment). Viral meningitis is most common in children and is more widespread during the summer months and early fall. Viruses such as herpes simplex virus, La Crosse virus, West Nile virus can cause viral meningitis.
    • Bacterial meningitis, kind of meningitis that very serious and should be treated as a medical emergency. Bacterial meningitis can be quite severe and may result in brain damage, hearing loss, or learning disabilities. There are at least 50 kinds of bacteria that can cause meningitis and septicaemia.

      The main types of bacteria that cause meningitis are Meningococcal (Neisseria meningitidis), Pneumococcal (Streptococcus pneumoniae), Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), Group B Streptococcal (GBS), Tubercular (TB), E. coli, Listeria (Listeria monocytogenes.
    • Fungal meningitis, kind of meningitis that very rare, life threatening disease. Fungal meningitis may be caused by several types of fungus such as Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma. Cryptococcal meningitis is a common fungal form of the disease that affects people with immune deficiencies, such as AIDS.
    • Other meningitis causes, kind of meningitis that result from noninfectious disease such as drug allergies, some types of cancer and inflammatory diseases such as lupus.

    Acute bacterial meningitis usually occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and migrate to the brain and spinal cord. Chronic forms of meningitis disease occur when slow-growing organisms invade the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain.

    Sign and Symptom of Meningitis disease :

    Symptoms of Meningitis disease are vary. The first symptoms of bacterial or viral meningitis can come on quickly, and may include;
    • High fever and chills,
    • Nausea and vomiting,
    • Mental status changes,
    • Sensitivity to light (photophobia),
    • Severe headache,
    • Stiff neck (meningismus),
    • Lack of interest in drinking and eating.

    Other symptoms that can occur with meningitis disease are Agitation, Bulging fontanelles, Decreased consciousness, Poor feeding or irritability in children, Rapid breathing, Unusual posture with the head and neck arched backwards (opisthotonos).

    Symptoms can differ in babies and young children. Newborns and infants may not have the classic signs and symptoms of headache and stiff neck. Babies can get ill very quickly, so check often sign and symptom of meningitis disease bellow ;
    • High Temperature
    • Constant crying
    • Jaundice (a yellowish tint to the skin)
    • Blotchy skin, getting paler or turning blue
    • Excessive sleepiness or irritability
    • Poor feeding (vomiting/refusing to feed)
    • Breathing fast / difficulty breathing
    • Sometimes diarrhoea

    Treatment of Meningitis disease :

    If you get suspected as meningitis disease that cause by bacterial, it's serious medical problem. In this condition patients are require urgent treatment in hospital. They may need to be treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). The doctor will order laboratory tests to help make the exact diagnostic, probably including a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to collect a sample of spinal fluid.

    Actually, Treatment for meningitis disease depends on the organism causing the infection, age of patient, the extent or spread of the infection, and the presence of other medical conditions or complications of meningitis. Most patients with viral meningitis usually start getting better within 3 days of feeling sick and recover within 2 weeks.

    Strong doses of intravenous antibiotics medication will be used to treat the underlying infection for meningitis disease cause by bacteria. Corticosteroids such as prednisone may be used to relieve brain pressure and swelling, and to prevent hearing loss that is common in patients with Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. Pain killer (analgesic) and reducing fever (antipyretic) such as acetaminophen/paracetamol, and sedatives may be given to make patients more comfortable.

    Oxygen therapy may be given if the patient meningitis disease have trouble breathing and to increase the amount of oxygen in all parts of the body. Fluids may be given to replace those lost to fever, sweating, vomiting, and poor appetite. Monitoring blood chemicals such as sodium and sugar in the blood is important for the patient thus diagnosed as meningitis disease. The physician may prescribe anticonvulsants such as Phenobarbital or Dilantin® (phenytoin) to prevent seizures on treatment's schedule.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 3:06 PM, ,

    Treatment of Insomnia

    Insomnia is difficulty getting to sleep or staying asleep for long enough to feel refreshed the next morning at least 1 month condition. Actually, Insomnia is a symptom, not a stand-alone diagnosis or a disease. Many people have poor sleep hygiene and do not observe their circadian rhythm, Because of that rare people only those coming to the doctors looking for treatment of insomnia.

    Experiencing insomnia is typically a symptom of other life balance issues, such as anxiety, weight gain, stress at work or home, changes in lifestyle and a disrupted sleeping environment. People with insomnia have one or more of the following symptoms:
    • Difficulty falling asleep
    • Feeling tired upon waking
    • Waking up too early in the morning
    • Waking up often during the night and having trouble going back to sleep.
    Insomnia is not defined by a specific number of hours of sleep that one gets, since individuals vary widely in their sleep needs and practices. Insomnia is often defined as a positive response to either of two questions: "Do you experience difficulty sleeping?" or "Do you have difficulty falling or staying asleep?

    Type of Insomnia :

    There are two types of insomnia ; Primary insomnia and Secondary insomnia. Primary insomnia means that a person is having sleep problems that are not directly associated with a medical, psychiatric, or environmental cause. Secondary insomnia means that a person is having sleep problems because of something else, such as a health condition (like asthma, depression, arthritis, cancer, or heartburn); pain; medication they are taking; or a substance they are using (like alcohol).

    Insomnia also varies in how long it lasts and how often it occurs :
    • Transient insomnia lasts for less than a week. It can be caused by another disorder, by changes in the sleep environment, by the timing of sleep, severe depression, or by stress.
    • Acute insomnia is the inability to consistently sleep well for a period of less than a month
    • Insomnia is called chronic when a person has insomnia at least three nights a week for a month or longer. Its effects can vary according to its causes, for example due to muscular fatigue, hallucinations, and/or mental fatigue.

    How it may affect you :

    The most common problem in young people with insomnia is difficulty falling asleep (sleep-onset insomnia). An insomniac may also experience some of list bellow ;
    • waking early in the morning
    • waking in the night (most common in older people)
    • feeling irritable and tired and finding it difficult to concentrate
    • waking when they have been disturbed from sleep by pain or noise
    • not feeling refreshed after sleep and not being able to function normally during the day

    Treatment of Insomnia :

    It is important to identify or rule out medical and psychological causes before deciding on the treatment for insomnia. Once your condition is treated, your insomnia will often disappear without further medical help. Transient insomnia resolves when the underlying trigger is removed or corrected.

    Acute insomnia may not require treatment, Attention to sleep hygiene is an important first line treatment strategy and should be tried before any pharmacological approach is considered. if your insomnia is severely affecting you during the day, they may prescribe you a short course of sleeping tablets

    Treatment for chronic insomnia includes first treating any underlying conditions or health problems that are causing the insomnia. Management of chronic insomnia remains unclear. If insomnia continues, your health care provider may suggest behavioral therapy. Hypnotic medication is therefore only recommended for short-term use, especially in acute or chronic insomnia. But generally, treatment of insomnia entails both non-pharmacologic (non-medical) and pharmacologic (medical) aspects.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 4:20 AM, ,

    Renal Failure or Kidney Failure Disease

    Renal failure or kidney failure also called as renal insufficiency is describes a medical condition in which loss of your kidneys' ability to perform their main function of eliminating excess fluid and salts (electrolytes) as well as waste material from your blood.

    Renal failure disease is typically detected by an elevated serum creatinine level in laboratory test result. Problems frequently encountered in kidney malfunction include abnormal fluid levels in the body, abnormal levels of potassium, phosphate, calcium, deranged acid levels, and (in the longer term) anemia as well as delayed healing in broken bones.

    - Classification of Renal Failure Disease ;

    There are two forms of renal failure ; acute {acute kidney injury (AKI) or acute renal failure (ARF)} and chronic {chronic kidney disease (CKD) or chronic renal failure (CRF)}. Other factors which may help differentiate acute renal failure from chronic renal failure include anemia and the kidney size on ultrasound examination. Chronic renal failure generally leads to anemia and small size of kidney.

    - Sign and Symptom of Renal Failure Disease ;

    In every patient those diagnose as renal failure usually has different symptom, It can vary from person to person. Symptoms of acute renal failure may include:
    • Nausea and vomiting.
    • Pain in the back just below the rib cage. This is called flank pain.
    • Little or no urine when you urinate.
    • Not feeling like eating.
    • Swelling, especially in your legs and feet.
    • Feeling confused, anxious and restless, or sleepy.
    Sometimes acute renal failure causes no signs or symptoms and is detected through laboratory tests done for another reason. Symptoms of chronic renal failure are include:

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) symptoms is measured by renal function test as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), where the result falls below 30 milliliters per minute (< 30 mL/min) signs of uremia (high blood level of protein by-products, such as urea) may become noticeable. When the GFR falls below 15 mL/min most people become increasingly symptomatic. Chronic renal failure can be present for many years before you notice any symptoms.

    Some of the symptoms such as fatigue have been present for some patient. If your doctor suspected your self as renal failure case, you need to regular monitoring of your blood and urine test. Otherwise the symptoms may not be detected until the kidneys have already been damaged. Signs of chronic renal failure obvious than others are:
    • decreased urination
    • increased urination, especially at night
    • urine that is cloudy or tea-coloured
    • blood in the urine (not a common symptom of chronic renal failure)
    When the kidneys' inability to eliminate waste and excess fluid from the body, symptom will appear as below:
    • thirst
    • fatigue
    • weight loss
    • a yellowish-brown tint to the skin
    • shortness of breath
    • loss of appetite
    • nausea and vomiting (this is a common symptom)
    • puffy eyes, hands, and feet (called edema)
    • high blood pressure
    • bad taste in the mouth or bad breath
    • generalized, persistent itchy skin
    • muscle twitching or cramping
    The results of laboratory tests may change suddenly (within a few days to 2 weeks). Such as tests BUN, Creatinine clearance, Serum creatinine, Serum potassium and Urinalysis.

    - Causes of Renal Failure Disease ;

  • Acute renal failure, usually occurs when the blood supply to the kidneys is suddenly interrupted or when the kidneys become overloaded with toxins. Heavy blood loss, an injury, or a bad infection called sepsis can reduce blood flow to the kidneys. Including when some one loss to much water (diarrhea) and become dehydration. Also complications from surgeries in which the kidneys are deprived of normal blood flow for extended periods of time.

    Drug overdoses, accidental or from chemical overloads of drugs such as antibiotics or chemotherapeutics, may also cause the onset of acute kidney failure. Examples of medicines that can sometimes harm the kidneys include:
    - The dyes used in some X-ray tests.
    - Antibiotics, such as gentamicin and streptomycin.
    - Some blood pressure medicines, such as ACE inhibitors.
    - Pain medicines, such as aspirin and ibuprofen.

  • Chronic renal failure, The most common is diabetes mellitus. The second one is long-standing, uncontrolled of hypertension or high blood pressure. The third one is chronic glomerulonephritis. The other common causes of CRF are polycystic kidney disease, reflux nephropathy, kidney stones, and prostate disease. Some infectious diseases such as hantavirus can attack the kidneys, causing kidney failure.

  • - Treatment of Renal Failure Disease ;

    Treatment of renal failure can vary widely, depending on the cause and sign or symptom that appear by test lab or other examination. Once the cause is found, the goal of treatment is to restore kidney function and prevent fluid and waste from building up in the body while the kidneys heal. Dialysis may be needed, and can make the patient feel better.

    For example the doctor may restore blood flow to the kidneys, stop any medicines that may be causing the problem, or remove or bypass a blockage in the urinary tract. Some medication are giving to the patient with real failure disease such as calcium, glucose or sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) to prevent the accumulation of high levels of potassium in the blood. More potassium in the blood can cause dangerous irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias).

    Antibiotic usually prescribe to prevent or treat infections. in order to help and support the medication, doctor will suggest the patient with renal failure disease to take diet high in carbohydrates and low in protein, salt, and potassium.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 3:29 PM, ,

    Blood Cancer or Hematological Malignancies Disease

    Blood cancer or Hematological malignancies disease are the types of cancer that affect blood, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.

    - Type of Blood Cancer Disease ;

    There are three types of blood cancers: Leukemia, Lymphoma and Myeloma. Leukemia and myeloma ussually start in the bone marrow. But lymphoma mostly starts in the lymphatic system. Within this type of blood cancer, lymphomas are more common than leukemias.
    • Leukaemia is the cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal reproduction of blood cells (usually white blood cells) which cannot fight off infection like normal white blood cells.
    • Lymphoma originates in the lymphatic system which is part of the immune system. The lymphoma cells multiply and become a mass that forms in parts of the lymphatic system.
    • Myeloma develops in plasma cells and bone marrow. Additionally, myelomas generate a substance that weakens bones, and produce abnormal proteins that can cause symptoms in other parts of the body.
    Lymphomas, lymphocytic leukemias, and myeloma are from the lymphoid line, while acute and chronic myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative diseases are myeloid in origin.

    Bellow are specification type of blood cancer disease :
    • Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
    • Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
    • Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
    • Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
    • Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
    • Agnogenic Myeloid Metaplasia (AMM)
    • Essential Thrombocythemia (ET)
    • Hairy Cell Leukemia

    - Sign and Symptom of Blood Cancer Disease ;

    Blood cancer Leukemia has signs and symptoms vary depending on the type of leukemia. In the case of blood cancer the bone marrow is damaged, which results into lack of blood platelets.

    Symptoms of blood cancer Leukemia can include fever, chills, fatigue, frequent infections, swollen lymph nodes, weight loss, bleeding or bruising easily, bone pain or tenderness, and excessive sweating especially at night.

    Symptom of blood cancer lymphoma (Hodgkin’s and non-Hondgkin’s) are the same in both types, and include swollen lymph nodes in the neck, groin and/or armpit; fever; chills; fatigue and weight loss. Blood cancer Myeloma signs and symptoms include bone pain, fractures, anemia and recurrent infections.

    - Causes of Blood Cancer Disease ;

    Blood cancer disease untill now the causes are still unknown. But there are some risk factors may increasing develop of blood cancer such as :
    • Advanced age
    • Smoking
    • Certain types of infections
    • Exposure to certain chemicals
    • Family history of blood cancer
    • Exposure to radiation or certain types of chemotherapy
    • Personal history of certain blood disorders
    • Personal history of certain genetic disorders
    • Compromised immune system due to such conditions as HIV/AIDS, taking corticosteroids, or organ transplant.

    - Treatment of Blood Cancer Disease ;
    • Treatment of Blood cancer leukemia include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biological therapy, targeted therapy and stem cell transplantation.
    • Treatment of blood cancer Lymphoma includes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell or bone marrow transplantation.
    • Treatment for myeloma includes chemotherapy, drug therapy, radiation therapy and stem cell transplantation.

    The course of treatment depends on the type of blood cancer and the patient's current state of health. Other therapies may perform by medical team including ; Anti-nausea, Antibiotics, Blood transfusions, Dietary counseling, Pain killer medications, Surgery to remove an enlarged spleen or to treat bone fractures and Vaccinations to prevent diseases like the flu and pneumonia.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 12:17 AM, ,

    Hypertension or High Blood Pressure Disease

    Hypertension (HTN) or High Blood Pressure (HBP) is a cardiac chronic medical term in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated. We can say that the Hypertension occurs when blood is forced pushing against the walls of arteries at an increased pressure. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the body's tissues.

    Many people have hypertension and don't know it. Because of that the hypertension is known as the "silent killer" since it has no initial symptoms but can lead to long-term disease and complications. Hypertension or high blood pressure is the primary and most important manifesting symptom of hypertensive vascular disease.

    - Classification of Hypertension disease ;
    • Primary (essential) hypertension, Around 90–95% of cases are categorized as "primary hypertension," which means high blood pressure with no obvious medical cause.
    • Secondary hypertension; and around 5–10% of cases (secondary hypertension) are caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system.

    Blood pressure is measured using two numbers. Blood pressure when the heart beats is called systolic pressure, Blood pressure when the heart is at rest is called diastolic pressure. An example of this could be 'the blood pressure is 120 over 80', which is written as "120/80" mmHg (millimeters of mercury).

    The American Heart Association has long considered blood pressure less than 140/90 mmHg is normal for adults. But some other medical team told that the Healthy blood pressure readings are below 120/80 mmHg. In these case, mostly doctors will give answer to the patient like this; "As long as with number of 140/90 do not give an effect to the patient, It's called normal blood pressure not hypertension case.

    - What's classed of blood pressure ?
    • Normal blood pressure less than 120/80
    • Pre-hypertension 120-139/ 80-89
    • High blood pressure (hypertension stage 1) 140-159/90-99
    • High blood pressure (hypertension stage 2) higher than 160/100

    - Sign and Symptom of Hypertension disease ;

    One of the big problems with hypertension is that it hardly ever causes symptoms. Mild to moderate essential hypertension is usually asymptomatic (a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms). Severe hypertension can cause symptoms such as headache, drowsiness, confusion, vision disorders, sleepiness, nausea, and vomiting. These symptoms are collectively called hypertensive encephalopathy.

    Hypertensive encephalopathy mostly cause by severe small blood vessel congestion and brain swelling, which is reversible if blood pressure is lowered. People often do not seek medical care until they have symptoms arising from the organ damage caused by chronic (ongoing, long-term) hypertension.

    - Causes of Hypertension Disease ;

    Primary (essential) hypertension. This classification no direct cause has been identified but there are risk factors that can contribute to developing high blood pressure; Sedentary lifestyle, stress, smoking, visceral obesity, potassium deficiency (hypokalemia), obesity, salt (sodium) sensitivity, alcohol intake, and vitamin D deficiency that increase the risk of developing hypertension, having a family history of hypertension (heredity), Birth control pills (oral contraceptive use), Lack of exercise (physical inactivity) and also Medications (amphetamines, diet pills, and some medications used for cold and allergy symptoms like pseudoephedrine).

    Secondary hypertension. This type is important to recognize since it's treated differently to essential hypertension, by treating the underlying cause of the elevated blood pressure. Some of the main causes for secondary hypertension are chronic kidney diseases, diseases in the arteries supplying the kidneys, chronic alcohol abuse, hormonal disturbances, endocrine tumours. Other common causes of secondary hypertension is pre-eclampsia during pregnancy.

    - Prevention of Hypertension Disease ;

    If you are diagnosed as hypertension, the first step in blood pressure control is regular blood pressure checks. Some guide to prevent you fro hypertension are :
    • Weight reduction and regular aerobic exercise
    • Reduce dietary sugar
    • Reduce sodium (salt) in the body
    • Diet rich in fruits and vegetables and low-fat or fat-free dairy products
    • Discontinuing tobacco use and alcohol consumption
    • Reducing stress, for example with relaxation therapy
    • Increasing omega 3 fatty acids can help lower hypertension.

    - Treatment of Hypertension Disease ;

    If you are diagnosed as having hypertension, follow your doctor's instructions faithfully. The first line of treatment for hypertension, which are the same as the recommended preventative lifestyle changes such as dietary changes, physical exercise and weight loss. The next step is taking medicine anti hypertensive drugs, The first line antihypertensive supported by the best evidence is a low dose thiazide-based diuretic.
    • Diuretics help the body get rid of excess salt and fluids via the kidneys. In certain cases, they relax blood vessels, reducing the strain on your circulation.
    • ACE inhibitors stop the production of a hormone called angiotensin II, this medicine will makes the blood vessels narrow. If your hypertension is not easily controlled on simple medication, your doctor will probably use a medicine of this type.
    • Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists work in a similar way to ACE inhibitors. This is hypertension drug that stopping the production of angiotensin II and block its action. This allows the blood vessels to expand, improving blood flow and reducing blood pressure.
    • Alpha-blockers cause the blood vessels to relax and widen. Combining them with beta-blockers has a greater effect on the resistance in the circulation.
    • Beta-blockers block the effect of the hormone adrenaline and the sympathetic nervous system on the body. This relaxes the heart so that it beats more slowly, lowering the blood pressure.
    • Calcium-channel blockers reduce muscle tension in the arteries, expanding them and creating more room for the blood flow. In addition, they slightly relax the heart muscle so it beats more slowly, reducing blood pressure.
    • Some examples of common combined prescription drug treatments is combination of an ACE inhibitor and a calcium channel blocker (perindopril and amlodipine).

    - Complication of Hypertension Disease ;

    Without treatment, life expectancy may well be reduced due to the risk of developing complications such as heart failure or stroke. Other complication of hypertension disease may refer to Myocardial infarction, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Hypertensive retinopathy, Hypertensive nephropathy and Hypertensive encephalopathy.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 9:47 PM, ,

    Information About Diseases and Treatment

    A disease is a medical condition refer to an abnormal condition affecting the body of an organism. The disease happened may be caused by external factors, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases.

    We will write in our website many of information about Disease And Treatment including sign and symptom, laboratory testing, diagnosis, prognosis, diet. Acute disease and chronic disease, especialy for serious medical cases in the community such as heart disease, cancer or malignant tumors, blood, renal and hepar function disorder.

    We will take a look also articles about cancer disease and treatment for example lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, brain cancer, bone cancer, etc other danger cancer disease.

    There are four main types of disease: pathogenic disease, deficiency disease, hereditary disease, and physiological disease. Treatment for each disease mostly different due to pathophysiology the disease it self.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 12:21 PM, ,