Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, finally the person has high blood sugar (glucose) level, This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polydipsia (increased thirst), polyuria (frequent urination) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes by some serious health complications problem such as kidney disease (renal failure), heart disease, stroke, and blindness. Diabetes comes from Greek, and it means a siphon.In 1675 Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term, although it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. Mel in Latin means honey; the urine and blood of people with diabetes has excess glucose, and glucose is sweet like honey. Diabetes mellitus could literally mean "siphoning off sweet water".
The main types include type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. The other forms of diabetes mellitus disease include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.
Diabetes Mellitus disease type I : results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. Sometimes called juvenile diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Diabetes Type I can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. But in fact, Many patients are diagnosed when they are older than age 20.
Diabetes Mellitus disease type II : This is the most common form of diabetes, results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. It most often occurs in adulthood, but teens and young adults are now being diagnosed with it because of high obesity rates. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes accounting for 90%-95% of people with diabetes. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it. Diabetes type II referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and adult-onset diabetes.
Gestational Diabetes : Type of diabetes that develop during pregnancy and generally resolves after the baby is delivered. But, It may precede development of type 2 DM.
- Signs and symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Disease
Symptoms of diabetes can develop suddenly (over days or weeks) in previously healthy children or adolescents, or can develop gradually (over several years) in overweight adults over the age of 40. High blood levels of glucose can cause several problems, including Blurry vision, Excess thirst, Fatigue, Frequent urination, Hunger and Weight loss.
Type 1 diabetes while in type 2 diabetes they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent.Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar have no symptoms. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop over a short period of time. Ketoacidosis, a condition due to starvation or uncontrolled diabetes, is common in Type I diabetes. Symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, rapid breathing, extreme lethargy, drowsiness and altered states of consciousness.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus also may develop of hyperosmolar nonketotic state, which is more common in type 2 diabetes and is mainly the result of dehydration.Other sign and symptom is A number of skin rashes can occur in diabetes that are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.
- Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus Disease
The doctors will put diagnosis of diabetes mellitus after patient do some examination like urine test, blood test and see the result amount of glucose found. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following:
- Fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL). Levels between 100 and 126 mg/dL are called impaired fasting glucose or pre-diabetes.
- Plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test. The blood sugar levels increase slightly after eat and it will tightly regulated in the human body. This test is used more often for type 2 diabetes.
- Symptoms of hyperglycemia and casual plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL).
- Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) ≥ 6.5%. (Normal: Less than 5.7%)
- Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Disease
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which cannot be cured except in very specific situations. Treatment of diabetes focuses on two goals: keeping blood glucose within normal range and preventing the development of long-term complications. Treatment involves medicines, diet, and exercise to control blood sugar and prevent symptoms and problems.
The long-term goals of treatment are to Prolong life, Reduce symptoms, Prevent diabetes-related complications such as blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, and amputation of limbs.
Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1, Patients with Type I diabetes disease need daily injections of insulin to help their bodies use glucose. Mostly doctors will give a combination use of regular or NPH insulin, and/or synthetic insulin analogs such as Humalog, Novolog or Apidra; the combination of Lantus/Levemir and Humalog, Novolog or Apidra. Treatment by using insulin must be continued indefinitely.
Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Patients with Type II diabetes may need to use insulin injections if their diabetes cannot be controlled with diet, exercise, and oral medication. But the main think is the diabetes disease type II control by their lifestyle and physical activity.
Patients with diabetes disease who require multiple injections over the course of a day may be able to use an insulin pump that administers small doses of insulin on demand. Attention is also paid to other health problems that may accelerate the deleterious effects of diabetes. These include smoking, elevated cholesterol levels, obesity, high blood pressure, and lack of regular exercise.
Disease and Treatment @ 10:52 AM,