What is Meningitis?
brain and spinal cord, usually due to the spread of an infection. Meningitis is one of deadly diseases that can kill in hours. Most cases are caused by bacteria or viruses, but some can be due to certain medications or illnesses and it leads to the meninges becoming inflamed (swollen). When it's happened can damage the nerves and brain if late getting treatment.
If patient suspect of meningitis, Knowing whether meningitis is caused by a virus or bacterium is important because the severity of illness and the treatment differ depending on the cause. Meningitis disease can resolve on its own in a couple of weeks or ... it can be a life-threatening emergency.
Causes of Meningitis disease :
Meningitis usually results from a viral infection, but some of cases are also cause by bacterial infection and fungal infection. Viruses and Bacteria that infect the skin, gastrointestinal, respiratory tract and urinary system can spread by the bloodstream to the meninges through cerebrospinal fluid, the fluid that circulates in and around the spinal cord.
In some cases of bacterial meningitis, the bacteria spread to the meninges (protective membranes) from a severe local infection or a severe head trauma. For example, a serious ear infection (otitis media) and nasal sinus infection (sinusitis) can lead to meningitis disease if the patient don't get treatment well.
- Viral meningitis (called aseptic meningitis), this kind of meningitis that the most common and less serious type of meningitis (clears up without specific treatment). Viral meningitis is most common in children and is more widespread during the summer months and early fall. Viruses such as herpes simplex virus, La Crosse virus, West Nile virus can cause viral meningitis.
- Bacterial meningitis, kind of meningitis that very serious and should be treated as a medical emergency. Bacterial meningitis can be quite severe and may result in brain damage, hearing loss, or learning disabilities. There are at least 50 kinds of bacteria that can cause meningitis and septicaemia.
The main types of bacteria that cause meningitis are Meningococcal (Neisseria meningitidis), Pneumococcal (Streptococcus pneumoniae), Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib), Group B Streptococcal (GBS), Tubercular (TB), E. coli, Listeria (Listeria monocytogenes.
- Fungal meningitis, kind of meningitis that very rare, life threatening disease. Fungal meningitis may be caused by several types of fungus such as Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma. Cryptococcal meningitis is a common fungal form of the disease that affects people with immune deficiencies, such as AIDS.
- Other meningitis causes, kind of meningitis that result from noninfectious disease such as drug allergies, some types of cancer and inflammatory diseases such as lupus.
Acute bacterial meningitis usually occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and migrate to the brain and spinal cord. Chronic forms of meningitis disease occur when slow-growing organisms invade the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain.
Sign and Symptom of Meningitis disease :
Symptoms of Meningitis disease are vary. The first symptoms of bacterial or viral meningitis can come on quickly, and may include;
- High fever and chills,
- Nausea and vomiting,
- Mental status changes,
- Sensitivity to light (photophobia),
- Severe headache,
- Stiff neck (meningismus),
- Lack of interest in drinking and eating.
Other symptoms that can occur with meningitis disease are Agitation, Bulging fontanelles, Decreased consciousness, Poor feeding or irritability in children, Rapid breathing, Unusual posture with the head and neck arched backwards (opisthotonos).
Symptoms can differ in babies and young children. Newborns and infants may not have the classic signs and symptoms of headache and stiff neck. Babies can get ill very quickly, so check often sign and symptom of meningitis disease bellow ;
- High Temperature
- Constant crying
- Jaundice (a yellowish tint to the skin)
- Blotchy skin, getting paler or turning blue
- Excessive sleepiness or irritability
- Poor feeding (vomiting/refusing to feed)
- Breathing fast / difficulty breathing
- Sometimes diarrhoea
Treatment of Meningitis disease :
If you get suspected as meningitis disease that cause by bacterial, it's serious medical problem. In this condition patients are require urgent treatment in hospital. They may need to be treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). The doctor will order laboratory tests to help make the exact diagnostic, probably including a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to collect a sample of spinal fluid.
Actually, Treatment for meningitis disease depends on the organism causing the infection, age of patient, the extent or spread of the infection, and the presence of other medical conditions or complications of meningitis. Most patients with viral meningitis usually start getting better within 3 days of feeling sick and recover within 2 weeks.
Strong doses of intravenous antibiotics medication will be used to treat the underlying infection for meningitis disease cause by bacteria. Corticosteroids such as prednisone may be used to relieve brain pressure and swelling, and to prevent hearing loss that is common in patients with Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. Pain killer (analgesic) and reducing fever (antipyretic) such as acetaminophen/paracetamol, and sedatives may be given to make patients more comfortable.
Oxygen therapy may be given if the patient meningitis disease have trouble breathing and to increase the amount of oxygen in all parts of the body. Fluids may be given to replace those lost to fever, sweating, vomiting, and poor appetite. Monitoring blood chemicals such as sodium and sugar in the blood is important for the patient thus diagnosed as meningitis disease. The physician may prescribe anticonvulsants such as Phenobarbital or Dilantin® (phenytoin) to prevent seizures on treatment's schedule.
Disease and Treatment @ 3:06 PM,