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In our articles you can learn more about Disease And Treatment including sign and symptom, laboratory testing, diagnosis, prognosis, diet. We provide you many of serious medical cases from acute to chronic disease, health guides, medical reports, advice & support for the patient








Disease and Treatment of Alzheimer

What is Alzheimer Disease (AD)?

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and gets worse over time. Alzheimer's is a type of dementia that causes problems with memory, thinking and behavior. The biggest risk factor for having Alzheimer’s disease is increasing age, with three in ten people over 85 having dementia. Symptoms can be treated with medication, but there is no cure.

The cause of Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood. It's recorded about 70% of the risk is believed to be genetic with many genes usually involved. Other risk factors include :

  • a family history of the condition
  • previous severe head injuries
  • lifestyle factors and conditions associated with cardiovascular disease.


  • The Alzheimer's disease process is associated with plaques and tangles in the brain. These plaques impair synapses so signals cannot pass between brain cells. Tangles kill brain cells by preventing the normal transport of food and energy around the brain cell. Both of this situation causing a declining ability to cope with everyday life as brain cells die. As brain cells die the brain shrinks, which can be detected using imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).


    Signs and symptoms of Alzheimer's disease

    The most common early symptom of Alzheimer's is difficulty remembering newly learned information. For example, this could be forgetting about recent conversations or events, and forgetting the names of places and objects. Other symptoms may include:
    • Emotional unpredictability
    • Vagueness in everyday conversation
    • Forgetting well-known people or places
    • Taking longer to do routine tasks
    • Apparent loss of enthusiasm for previously enjoyed activities
    • Inability to process questions and instructions
    • Deterioration of social skills
    • hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that aren't there) and delusions (believing things that are untrue

    Diagnosis and Test for Alzheimer's disease

    The diagnosis is made only after careful clinical consultation, usually diagnosed based on the person's medical history, history from relatives, and behavioural observations. However, a timely diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease can give you the best chance to prepare and plan for the future, as well as receive any treatment or support that may help.

    Some test procedure may help the doctor to put the diagnose of Alzheimer's disease such as ;
    - Neuropsychological tests (mini–mental state examination (MMSE) are widely used to evaluate the cognitive impairments)
    - Blood and urine tests (identify other causes for dementia)
    - Lumbar puncture for cerebral spinal fluid tests
    - Medical imaging (MRI, PET)

    Having trouble with memory does not mean someone have Alzheimer's. Many health issues can cause problems with memory and thinking. These tests will help to eliminate other conditions with similar symptoms such as nutritional deficiencies or depression.


    Treatment of Alzheimer's Diasease

    As we have explain in the begining, there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease. But medication is available that can help relieve some of the symptoms and slow down the progression of the condition in some people. Five medications are currently used to treat the cognitive problems of AD: four are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (tacrine, rivastigmine, galantamine and donepezil) and the other (memantine) is an NMDA receptor antagonist. The benefit from their use is small. No medication has been clearly shown to delay or halt the progression of the disease.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 11:59 AM, ,



    Zika Virus Disease

    Zika virus is transmitted by the same type of mosquito that carries dengue fever, yellow fever, and chikungunya virus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys through a network that monitored yellow fever. It was later identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania, A mosquito bites an infected person and then passes those viruses to other people it bites. For most people it is a very mild infection and isn't harmful.

    Most cases of Zika have no symptoms, but when present they are usually mild and can resemble dengue fever. Zika virus disease has ben recorded in Americas, Africa, Asia and the Pacific. As of 25 August 2016, 70 countries and territories have reported evidence of mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission since 2007. In the region of Asia, Ministry of Health Singapore confirmed that the Zika virus found in 41 patient. From these cases, 36 were identified through active testing of potentially infected persons.

  • What is symptom of Zika virus disease?

  • The incubation period of Zika virus disease is not clear, but is likely to be a few days. Symptoms may include fever, red eyes, joint pain, headache, skin rashes, malaise, and a maculopapular rash. These symptoms are usually mild and last for 2-7 days.
  • What is Complications of Zika virus disease

  • Zika infection during pregnancy can cause a birth defect of the brain called microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. In rare cases, Zika has been linked to Guillain-Barre syndrome (an uncommon sickness of the nervous system in which a person’s own immune system damages the nerve cells, causing muscle weakness, and sometimes, paralysis).
  • How to Prevention from Zika Virus?

  • As information above, The Zika virus is spread by mosquitoes. So, Protection against mosquito bites is a key measure to prevent Zika virus infection. Mosquitoes that spread Zika virus bite mostly during the day, but they can also bite at night. If your area has been report some one get this case, try to cover exposed skin by wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants. If you are also using sunscreen, apply sunscreen first, let it dry, then apply insect repellent. Use a bed net if the area where you are sleeping is exposed to the outdoors.

    Zika virus can be transmitted through sexual intercourse. We know that Zika can remain in semen longer than in other body fluids, including vaginal fluids, urine, and blood. For regions with no active transmission of Zika virus, WHO recommends practicing safer sex or abstinence for a period of 6 months to whom return from areas of active transmission to prevent Zika virus infection through sexual intercourse.
  • What is treatment of Zika virus disease?

  • There is currently no specific treatment for Zika virus infection. People sick with Zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat the symptom like pain and fever with common medicines. There is currently no vaccine available.

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    Disease and Treatment @ 10:50 AM, ,