Hepatitis is medical condition defined by swelling and inflammation of the liver. The hepatitis condition can be self-limiting (healing on its own), or can lead to scarring which called as cirrhosis and also possible lead to cancer. The type of hepatitis is named for the virus that causes it; for example, hepatitis A, hepatitis B or hepatitis C.
Causes of Hepatitis Disease
Hepatitis disease can be caused by ;
- Liver damage from alcohol, drugs, or poisonous mushrooms
- Immune cells in the body attacking the liver and causing autoimmune hepatitis
- Infections from viruses (such as hepatitis A, B, or C), bacteria, or parasites
- Medications, such as an overdose of acetaminophen/paracetamol, which can be deadly
Some other medicine also can damage the liver such as methyldopa for high blood pressure, isoniazid for tuberculosis, valproate and phenytoin for seizure's treatment, and including antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin). Hepatitis is acute when it lasts less than six months and chronic when it persists longer.
Symptom of Hepatitis Disease
Hepatitis may occur with limited or no symptoms, but often leads to jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), anorexia (poor appetite), vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, Diarrhea, malaise. and extreme fatigue. Hepatitis may start and get better quickly (acute hepatitis), or cause long-term disease (chronic hepatitis).
Hepatitis disease type A is usually short-term and does not lead to chronic liver problems. But patient with hepatitis B or C event they don't have symptom, the hepatitis can develop liver failure. Symptomatic individuals may present after convalescent stage of 7 to 10 days, with the total illness lasting 2 to 6 weeks.
Signs and tests of hepatitis disease will begin from physical examination, how the liver it self (Enlarged and tender). In the abdomen area the doctor will see the ascites (Fluid in the abdomen), and of course will see the skin about jaundice. Diagnose of hepatitis disease may appear on the laboratory test such as :
- Liver function tests
- Autoimmune blood markers
- Hepatitis virus serologies
- Abdominal ultrasound
- Paracentesis if fluid is in your abdomen
- Liver biopsy to check for liver damage
In the women who diagnose as autoimmune hepatitis, may appear symptom like Acne, abnormal menstruation, lung scarring, inflammation of the thyroid gland and kidneys. The white blood cells attack the liver, causing chronic inflammation and damage.
Hepatitis disease type D is only present in people already infected with hepatitis B, these case more happened in Europe country. Hepatitis type E is generally a mild and acute infection, has a fecal-oral transmission route. Hepatitis E is very rare, It is caught by putting something in your mouth that has been contaminated with the faeces of someone with hepatitis E.
Treatment of Hepatitis Disease
Treatment of hepatitis disease depend on causes of liver disease. The doctor will recommend a high-calorie diet to the patient those losing weight, drink plenty of fluids, and bed rest. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C may need some antiviral drug therapy, combination between pegylated interferon and ribavirin. In Serious liver disease, Liver transplantation may be indicated for patients with severe cirrhosis or for patients with liver cancer that has not spread beyond the liver.
Disease and Treatment @ 10:55 PM, ,
Most people will get chickenpox at some point in their lives if they have not had the chickenpox vaccine. A person usually has only one episode of chickenpox, but varicella zoster virus can lie dormant within the body and cause a different type of skin eruption later in life called shingles (or herpes zoster).
Chickenpox disease actually isn't serious health condition, but it can cause problems for pregnant women, newborns, teens and adults, and people who have immune system disorder that make it hard for the body to fight an infection. Somebody or Children usually catch chickenpox in winter and spring weather. Chickenpox is an airborne disease that spread easily through coughing or sneezing of ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the rash.
When someone becomes infected by varicella zoster virus (VZV), the pox usually appear 10 to 21 days later. The contagious period continues for 4 to 5 days after the appearance of the rash, or until all lesions have crusted over.
- Symptoms of Chickenpox Disease
Generally if someone get chickenpox disease they have symptoms such as a fever, headache, tummy ache, or loss of appetite for a day or two before breaking out in the classic pox rash. Other symptom may develop of myalgia, nausea, sore throat, pain in both ears, complaints of pressure in head or swollen face, and malaise in adolescents and adults
Chickenpox disease causes a red, itchy skin rash that usually appears first on the abdomen or back and face, and then spreads to almost everywhere else on the body, including the scalp, mouth, nose, ears, and genitals. Most pox will not leave scars unless they become infected with bacteria from scratching.
The incubation period of chickenpox was known about 14 to 16 days after you have been around someone with the virus. Other illnesses can have symptoms like those of chickenpox, with these reason people are may think they have had chickenpox twice when instead they have had two different infections. Some people can develop serious bacterial infections involving the skin, lungs, bones, joints, and the brain (encephalitis).
Test or examination to make sure if patient has chickenpox are blood tests, and tests of fluid within the vesicles of the rash (Tsanck smear). Prenatal diagnosis of fetal varicella infection can be performed using ultrasound, though a delay of 5 weeks following primary maternal infection is advised.
- Treatment of Chickenpox Disease
There is no specific treatment for chickenpox, it is enough to keep children comfortable while their own bodies fight the illness. Some treatments are however available for relieving the symptoms while the immune system clears the virus from the body, such as paracetamol to relieve fever and calamine lotion and cooling gels to ease itching.
Patient with long-term diseases may need medication to treatment for chickenpox, They may need immunoglobulin (IG) or antiviral medicine. ussually doctor will give them that treatment soon after they are exposed to the virus to help them feel better sooner.
Patient chickenpox disease with skin conditions (such as eczema or recent sunburn), lung conditions (such as asthma), or those who have recently taken steroids, the antiviral medicines may be very important. Antihistamines relieve itch and may be used in cases where the itch prevents sleep, because they are also sedative.
Disease and Treatment @ 2:50 PM, ,
Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases in which the pancreas no longer produces enough insulin or cells stop responding to the insulin that is produced, finally the person has high blood sugar (glucose) level, This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polydipsia (increased thirst), polyuria (frequent urination) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that causes by some serious health complications problem such as kidney disease (renal failure), heart disease, stroke, and blindness. Diabetes comes from Greek, and it means a siphon.In 1675 Thomas Willis added mellitus to the term, although it is commonly referred to simply as diabetes. Mel in Latin means honey; the urine and blood of people with diabetes has excess glucose, and glucose is sweet like honey. Diabetes mellitus could literally mean "siphoning off sweet water".
The main types include type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. The other forms of diabetes mellitus disease include congenital diabetes, which is due to genetic defects of insulin secretion, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, steroid diabetes induced by high doses of glucocorticoids, and several forms of monogenic diabetes.
Diabetes Mellitus disease type I : results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. Sometimes called juvenile diabetes and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Diabetes Type I can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. But in fact, Many patients are diagnosed when they are older than age 20.
Diabetes Mellitus disease type II : This is the most common form of diabetes, results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. It most often occurs in adulthood, but teens and young adults are now being diagnosed with it because of high obesity rates. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes accounting for 90%-95% of people with diabetes. Many people with type 2 diabetes do not know they have it. Diabetes type II referred to as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and adult-onset diabetes.
Gestational Diabetes : Type of diabetes that develop during pregnancy and generally resolves after the baby is delivered. But, It may precede development of type 2 DM.
- Signs and symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus Disease
Symptoms of diabetes can develop suddenly (over days or weeks) in previously healthy children or adolescents, or can develop gradually (over several years) in overweight adults over the age of 40. High blood levels of glucose can cause several problems, including Blurry vision, Excess thirst, Fatigue, Frequent urination, Hunger and Weight loss.
Type 1 diabetes while in type 2 diabetes they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent.Because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar have no symptoms. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes develop over a short period of time. Ketoacidosis, a condition due to starvation or uncontrolled diabetes, is common in Type I diabetes. Symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, rapid breathing, extreme lethargy, drowsiness and altered states of consciousness.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus also may develop of hyperosmolar nonketotic state, which is more common in type 2 diabetes and is mainly the result of dehydration.Other sign and symptom is A number of skin rashes can occur in diabetes that are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.
- Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus Disease
The doctors will put diagnosis of diabetes mellitus after patient do some examination like urine test, blood test and see the result amount of glucose found. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by recurrent or persistent hyperglycemia, and is diagnosed by demonstrating any one of the following:
- Fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL). Levels between 100 and 126 mg/dL are called impaired fasting glucose or pre-diabetes.
- Plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test. The blood sugar levels increase slightly after eat and it will tightly regulated in the human body. This test is used more often for type 2 diabetes.
- Symptoms of hyperglycemia and casual plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL).
- Glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) ≥ 6.5%. (Normal: Less than 5.7%)
- Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Disease
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which cannot be cured except in very specific situations. Treatment of diabetes focuses on two goals: keeping blood glucose within normal range and preventing the development of long-term complications. Treatment involves medicines, diet, and exercise to control blood sugar and prevent symptoms and problems.
The long-term goals of treatment are to Prolong life, Reduce symptoms, Prevent diabetes-related complications such as blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, and amputation of limbs.
Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1, Patients with Type I diabetes disease need daily injections of insulin to help their bodies use glucose. Mostly doctors will give a combination use of regular or NPH insulin, and/or synthetic insulin analogs such as Humalog, Novolog or Apidra; the combination of Lantus/Levemir and Humalog, Novolog or Apidra. Treatment by using insulin must be continued indefinitely.
Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Patients with Type II diabetes may need to use insulin injections if their diabetes cannot be controlled with diet, exercise, and oral medication. But the main think is the diabetes disease type II control by their lifestyle and physical activity.
Patients with diabetes disease who require multiple injections over the course of a day may be able to use an insulin pump that administers small doses of insulin on demand. Attention is also paid to other health problems that may accelerate the deleterious effects of diabetes. These include smoking, elevated cholesterol levels, obesity, high blood pressure, and lack of regular exercise.
Disease and Treatment @ 10:52 AM, ,